The input() function
Python has numerous GUI libraries which can create complex user interfaces, but within the core language it has a single input() function which takes input from the keyboard. Whatever is typed is stored in a variable. Whatever is entered is interpreted literally. So in other words, if you enter a string without surrounding quotes it will throw an error. Some examples are given below:
print function without formatting
As you already know the print function is the main way of showing output. It can be used to show multiple values at a time, either separated by commas or by using concatenation:
But the print statement has more powerful formatting parameters which can be used to show more complex output .
print function with formatting
The format operator is used within the print function. The left part of the % operator contains the output string template and the right part contains the values which will be put into the template.
The following character format operators are used:
- d, i – integer
- u – unsigned integer
- f – floating point number as m.ddddd
- e – floating point number in exponential format
- g – Use %e for exponents less than −4 or greater than +5, otherwise use %f
- c – single character
- s – any string data
- % – insert the % as a literal
Formatting operators can also have modifiers. They are put between the % and the modifier character. They can be used individually or together. Modifiers add further formatting control to the basic formatting operators:
- number – set field width to the number of characters specified by the number
- – – left justify the value
- + – right justify the value
- 0 – fill in leading space with zeros
- . – specify number of decimal places
- (name) – get value of key with name from supplied dictionary
In the next post we will look at Control Structures.